Aplicación de isótopos estables como indicadores de flujos de energía en ambientes costeros de Uruguay

Autores/as

  • Leandro Bergamino Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Rocha, Uruguay
  • Adriana Tudurí Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Sección Oceanología, Uruguay
  • Carolina Bueno Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Sección Oceanología, Uruguay
  • Ernesto Brugnoli Universidad de la República, Facultad de Ciencias, Sección Oceanología, Uruguay
  • Luciano Valenzuela Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Laboratorio de Ecología Evolutiva Humana (LEEH, Núcleo de Estudios Interdisciplinarios sobre Poblaciones Humanas de Patagonia Austral (NEIPHPA), Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Unidad de Enseñanza Universitaria Quequén, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. Estados Unidos
  • Ana Martínez Unidad de Gestión Pesquera Atlántica, Dirección Nacional de Recursos Acuáticos (DINARA), Rocha, Uruguay
  • Laura Perez Becoña Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Rocha, Uruguay
  • Fabrizio Scarabino Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Rocha, Uruguay
  • Felipe García-Rodríguez Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Rocha, Uruguay

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26461/13.01

Palabras clave:

carbono, relación c/n, fuentes de materia orgánica, estuarios

Resumen

El análisis de isótopos estables en sedimentos, vegetales y animales representa una herramienta de importancia para estudios ecológicos, reconstrucciones paleoclimáticas y paleoambientales. Con base en la diferenciación isotópica entre productores primarios, esta técnica ha tenido un gran impacto en la identificación de flujos de energía entre ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos adyacentes y en la estructura trófica. Se sintetizan aquí la nomenclatura y los principios básicos para la aplicación de isótopos estables en estudios de ambientes acuáticos. Además, se muestra su utilidad describiendo tres ejemplos recientes en ambientes costeros de Uruguay con diferentes objetivos: 1) evaluar el origen de la materia orgánica en sedimentos del Río de la Plata, 2) determinar la importancia trófica de una especie de diatomea en playas arenosas de Uruguay, y 3) evaluar la influencia de la materia orgánica antropogénica en la Bahía de Montevideo. La composición isotópica de las fuentes de materia orgánica permitió inferir los mecanismos involucrados en la transferencia de materia orgánica en los ecosistemas costeros. En esta revisión se subrayan las ventajas de este marcador isotópico de carbono que permite discriminar fuentes de materia orgánica. Asimismo, la combinación con otros análisis complementarios como la espectrofluorometría o los biopolímeros resulta importante en investigaciones de funcionamiento ecosistémico.

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Citas

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2017-06-19

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Bergamino, L., Tudurí, A., Bueno, C., Brugnoli, E., Valenzuela, L., Martínez, A., Perez Becoña, L., Scarabino, F., & García-Rodríguez, F. (2017). Aplicación de isótopos estables como indicadores de flujos de energía en ambientes costeros de Uruguay. INNOTEC, (13 ene-jun), 9–18. https://doi.org/10.26461/13.01

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